Types of sinusitis
Everyone knows that is not worth to joke with inflammation of the paranasal sinuses (genyantritis, frontal sinusitis). But doctors know how to treat sinusitis.
As long as we have nothing get a sore, we do not think how brilliant our body is arranged. In order to air is warmed and purified, it must go through several mazes inside the nose – a cavity covered with required grease – mucus.
These cavities are called the sinuses and serve not only for comfortable breathing, but to equalize the pressure between the cavitary formations skull and weather. Когда эти пазухи воспаляются. Doctors call this sinusitis (from the Latin sinus -. «bosom»).
A man has a total 4 pairs of paranasal sinuses: maxillary, frontal, basic (wedge-shaped) and lattice. Maxillary sinuses is the largest, the volume of each is about 30 cm 3, and therefore highmoritis is the one of the most common types of sinusitis. The first symptoms of the disease described the doctor Highmore in the XVII century – hence the name.
Sinusitis in children
Finally maxillary sinus forms the only to 7 years. ethmoiditis and fronts mainly are observed in small children. Sometimes polisinusit (inflammation of all sinuses) develops in older children with extensive inflammation. At the same time first the sinus of ethmoid bones (ethmoiditis) get inflamed, then – the paranasal sinuses (genyantritis), and then – an inflammation of the frontal (frontitis) and sphenoid sinus (sphenoiditis).
The disadvantage of all sinuses is that, being quite large, they have a very small excretory opening – anastomosis (1-3 mm), which sinuses are opened into the nasal cavity. During the swelling of the mucous membrane, the anastomosis close and the outflow mucus from the sinuses is disrupted, causing inflammation gradually begins.
Causes of sinusitis
The most common cause of sinusitis is undertreated until the end runny nose or transferred onto the legs of SARS (influenza, measles, etc.). There may be, and the state of violating the nasal breathing: nasal septum deviation, chronic (allergic or vasomotor) runny nose. Very often sick adenoids or the disease of the four roots of the back upper teeth provoke sinusitis.
Thus, the first disease-causing microbes get into sinus, and the organism due to lower immunity, cooling or allergies can not provide the necessary resistance to infection. Due to the swelling, the ventilation of sinus is stopped. It is isolated from the nasal cavity, but mucus gradually secretes in it and gradually fills the sinus. There are ideal conditions for microbial growth. The pus begins to fill the sinuses, it is strongly absorbed into the bloodstream, poisoning the whole body.
If sinusitis is left untreated, the disease becomes chronic. It would seem, sinusitis retreats, headache is gradually being stopped, turning into a feeling of heaviness, the nose is not always stuffy, but more often – in the supine position. There are complaints that are typical of chronic inflammation of the nasopharynx – scratchy, sore throat when swallowing, dry.
Sometimes this process is asymptomatic and only reveals itself through the years, when the child is already in school. Having become chronic, the sinusitis often causes complications in the internal organs – heart, kidney, liver, lung.
Typically, an otolaryngologist diagnoses after X-ray. For today the most informative method of diagnostics – is a computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses. As an auxiliary method, diaphanoscopy is sometimes used (this is translucence the paranasal sinuses using a special light sources introduced into the mouth of the investigated ).
Treatment of sinusitis
- The first thing to do is to remove swelling from anastomosis in order to the mucus could come out itself in a natural way. To do this, it is necessary to drip vasoconstrictive drops to a sick child (Naphthyzinum, Sanorin, galazolin 3-4 times a day ). The drops should fall directly into the middle nasal passage, so put the baby on the bed, threw back his head back. If inflammation of the sinuses is unilateral, tilt the child’s head in the affected side.
- In parallel, use anti-inflammatory (Protargolum, Colloid silver), antibacterial and anti-allergic drugs.
- If time has been lost and the inflammation of the sinuses has become purulent, antibiotics are prescribed.
Puncture of maxillary sinusitis
- A puncture is performed in severe cases. But it can be done only if there is a highmoritis. The rest of the sinuses are not available for washing. Unfortunately, psychologically children perceive this method of treatment quite difficult, although the puncture is done under local anesthesia.
- Bloodless drainage of the sinuses is carried out with catheter. It consists of 2 thin tubes and 2 rubber cartridges. One tube is inserted into the patient’s nose and cans of “work”. Swelling above and below of the anastomosis of the sinuses, they overlap the exits from the nose into the throat and nostril.
- Washing of sinuses under pressure carried out by means a vacuum device. Negative pressure helps pump out the pus, and then input a cure.
Symptoms of sinus inflammation (sinusitis)
By itself, a prolonged runny nose is not a reason for panic, but if the child is treated timely but nose is stuffed for longer than 7-10 days and the baby does not feel any relief, there is a risk that the inflammation in the sinuses began. Pay attention to such symptoms:
- prolonged runny nose with purulent mucous or watery discharge;
- difficulty in nasal breathing, there could be also alternating stuffiness of the right and left half of the nose;
- the dryness of the pharynx;
- frequent expectoration, abundant isolations of mucous or muco-purulent sputum in the morning;
- heaviness and pain in the inflamed sinus. Sometimes pain in the teeth, eyes, cheekbones, cheeks;
- acute sensitivity of the face;
- increased body temperature (up to 38 ° C and above). As a rule, this symptom is observed in the acute case. If there is a chronic course the body temperature rarely rises or it keeps on subfebrile marks (37-37,5 C);
- sickness: memory loss, fatigue, irritability. Photophobia, lacrimation, refusal to eat, sleep disturbance;
- weakened sense of smell or lack thereof;
- swelling of the cheeks and eyelids.
All symptoms are worse when bending forward (tying shoelaces symptom). Gradually, the pain loses the localization, and the child has a headache.
In order to prevent transfer of the disease into the chronic stage, do not waste time. If the baby has at least a few of these symptoms, consult your doctor. Only he can correctly diagnose the disease and prescribe appropriate treatment.
Folk medicine treatment of sinusitis
- Do not get involved in folk medicine (drip into the nose juice, apply on nose compresses). If there is a purulent sinus anastomosis swells so much that it is impossible to drain pus. In order to avoid complications (sepsis, meningitis) treatment of sinusitis should be entirely under the supervision of a physician and performed only in conjunction with conventional treatment.
- Abstain from heatings at home. As a rule, this leads only to aggravation of symptoms. Do not try independently to wash the nose. Incorrectly done, washing will most likely bring harm than good.
- Also homeopathy is well proven. It strengthens the protective properties of the organism.
- From physical treatments such as ultraviolet irradiation of the nasal cavity, diathermy, etc. have a good effect. However, keep in mind that when there is insufficient outflow of pus from the sinus heat treatments can lead to increased headache and to the aggravation of the disease.
- One of the safest options for self-treatment is an inhalation. It must be done with a 5-7-day continuing runny nose. Mix 1 tablespoon of sage leaves, chamomile and marigold flowers. Pour a glass of boiling water, bring to a boil and immediately remove from heat.
For the procedure, you can use the inhaler. Or just pour this mixture into a porcelain teapot and making from a piece of paper a cone, ask the baby to breathe from the spout. In the absence of allergies to inhaled, take mentha oil and propolis, dripping in boiling water for a couple of drops that and another. A good option is to breathe over a saucepan of boiled potatoes in their skins.
- Try to perform a facial massage with an ebonite disk (clockwise). Make a 1 turn in the face for 1 second. Duration of treatment should be 10-15 minutes. At night you can put a circle on the forehead area and nose.
If there is a chronic not purulent sinusitis, the steam room, especially with pine and fir decoction could help to a child, and at night put on the area of the sick sinus pieces of copper (a coin until 1961), fixing them with a plaster.
Treatment of chronic sinusitis
At the stage of resorption and for the treatment of chronic sinusitis, doctors recommend special massage and breathing exercises.
Gently tap on the nose bridge for 2-3 minutes with a large phalanx of the thumb. At first, you need to do such a drain tapping at least 1 time in half an hour. Find the following points: the inner upper corner of the eyebrows, the center point between the eyebrows, the inner lower part of the eye socket, the middle point on the nasolabial folds. These points should be a little painful. Massage them clockwise (20-30 seconds on each point).
Let the child in turn breathing 10 times with the left and right nostrils (4-6 seconds), closing them with thumb and index finger. This exercise helps to improve blood circulation.