Bacterial vaginosis (Gardnerellez) – is a vaginal dysbacteriosis which is caused by quantitative and qualitative violation of the vagina’s microflora, decreasing in quantity of lactobacilli and developing of gardnerella. It is characterized by vaginal secretion of a grayish color with an unpleasant smell. Such illness may cause inflammatory diseases and interruption of pregnancy.
Gardnerellez. Bacterial vaginosis
- Symptoms of a gardnerellez
- Reasons of a gardnerellez
- Development of a gardnerellez
- Diagnostics of a gardnerellez
- Treatment of a gardnerellez
- Prevention of a gardnerellez
Gardnerellez is one variant of a bacterial vaginosis, violation of natural microflora balance in female genitals. Gardnerellez is detected in 20% of women in the reproductive age range.
The lactic microflora in a vagina at a bacterial vaginosis is forced out by gardnerella. The reaosn of a bacterial vaginosis is sexual. Women with an active sexual life has more chances of get such a desease. Woman usually get this infection from a man. Therefore all sexual partners must be treated.
Gardnerella may cause an inflammation of uric tract and uterus, infertility, complications during pregnancy and childbirth.
When having gardnerella a woman can be infected by other microorganisms such as: trichomonas, mycoplasma chlamydia, candida etc.
Symptoms of a Gardnerellez
Gardnerella has similarities with other inflammatory diseases of womens’ genitals. Symptoms at gardnerella:
- Secretions from a vagina (grayish-white color, homogeneous, paste like and with an unpleasant smell).
- Burning sensation, pruritus, discomfort during urination and sexual contact.
The gardnerella has inflammatory changes in a vagina, an urethra and cervix. Intrauterine spirals, interruptions of pregnancy and childbirth may cause endometritis and an inflammation uterus. Gardnerella influences on a pregnancy bad: premature birth, children are born weakened, infection of a baby in childbirth.
Gardnerella in men has a slow inflammatory process with symptoms of the urethra. In this case secretion from an urethra (grayish color with a bad smell), discomfort during urination. It may cause prostatitis, an inflammation of eggs and development of infertility.
Reasons of Gardnerellez
The bacterial vaginosis arises as an imbalance of vaginal natural microflora. Gardnerell start to dominate over “not physiologic” species of microorganisms. External and internal factors may break usual microflora of genitourinary organs. External factors which cause development of a bacterial vaginosis:
- harmful ecology;
- recent and frequent change of the sexual partner;
- diets with a lack of lactic products;
- venereal diseases;
- application of antibiotics (candles and ointments);
- application of contraceptives (the vaginal candles containing 9-nonoksinol, condoms with spermicidal lubricant, hormonal pills);
- use of hygienic remedies (tampons, the perfumed means of intimate hygiene) and frequent syringing;
- clothes from the synthetic materials tightly fitting a figure.
Internal factors causing a bacterial vaginosis:
- endocrine violations and changes (including pregnancy);
- decrease of immune protection, immunodeficiency;
- emotional and physical over strain and stress;
- chronic diseases, imbalance of microflora of an intestinal and urinogenital path.
Development of a Gardnerellez
15 species of microorganisms is normal for a healthy adult woman. The main species of microorganisms: lactobacilli are the majority, bifidobacteria (10%), peptostreptokokk (~ 5%). Laktoflora supports acidic environment of the genitals mucosa which has local protective functions of immune.
Anaerobic bacteria (bakteroida, a gardnerella, etc.), genital mycoplasmas, trichomonads, candida are in small quantities of a vagina. Microbiological balance can be violated by number of these microorganisms, which causes dysbacteriosis of a vagina or a bacterial vaginosis. It is characterized by reduction of quantity of lactobacilli. Gardnerella can be found at woman with a bacterial vaginosis. Therefore a condition of a bacterial vaginosis call gardnerella.
Quantity of gardnerella can be increased with other bacterias (coccoid species, trichomonas, mycoplasma, mobiluncus, yeastlike fungi). The gardnerella creates a favorable environment for reproduction of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms. Waste products of gardnerella aggravate violations of mucous. Basis for penetration of other infections are being created. Therefore gardnerella causes development of inflammatory diseases of urinogenital system.
Diagnostics of a Gardnerellez
Gynecologist take smears from a vagina to confirmate diagnosis of a gardnerelleza. Quantity and a ratio of microorganisms in a vaginal secret is more important than its existence. Gardnerella are present at vaginal flora of most of healthy women without development of dysbacteriosis. The diagnosis “gardnerelleza” is based on:
- Complaints of patients and symptoms (existence of pastelike secretions of grayish-white color).
- Increases in PH secretion of a vagina (> 4,5).
- Presence of “key cells” of dabs from a vagina and an urethra. “Key cells” is epithelial cells which are stuck round by small sticks (gardnerella). This is an important sign of a gardnerellez.
- Amine test.
These three criterias are basis for detection of gardnerellez.
Intestinal dysbiosis may cause development of a bacterial vaginosis too. Of course, treat such diseases. It will reduce risk of a gardnerellez appearance.
Treatment of a Gardnerellez
Early and exact diagnostics of a gardnerellez allows to treat this illness in due time. Therapy methods of a modern gynecology allow to recover health of a patient and to avoid development of complications. But it doesn’t guarantee that disease will appear again in future.
Therapeutic treatment of a gardnerellez must liquidate the reasons of a disease and create an environment for normalization of genitals’ microflora.
During the first stage of treatment of gardnerellez doctor appoint klindamitsin and metronidazole (orally and vaginally):
- a klindamitsina phosphate – capsules and vaginal cream (2%);
- metronidazole – pills and gel (0,75%).
In a case of pregnancy, treatment is begun in the second trimester with the same medicine. In the first trimester oral use of metronidazole and a klindamitsin is inadmissible.
Treatment of a gardnerellez must be controlled under clinical and laboratory analyses. Treatment can be completed at disappearance of complaints, symptoms and normalization of laboratory analyses.
During treatment of a gardnerellez avoid: sexual contacts without condom, alcoholic drinks, tight synthetic clothes.
The second stage of treatment of a gardnerellez includes application inside and locally medicines containing laktoflor (dairy drink “Narin”), vitamins, immunostimulators.
Necessity of inspection and treatment for men is not still exactly. Disease may appear again even after treatment of both sexual partners. Nevertheless, treatment of this disease in a man will be desirable.
Prevention of a Gardnerellez
Preventive measures will help avoid development of a gardnerellez. Some advice for women:
- have constant sexual partner and exclude casual sexual contacts;
- use condom and minimize use of local contraceptives (Patenteks the Oval, Farmateks, Nonoksinol);
- don’t use often and without control vaginal antibacterial candles and pills (Terzhinan, Betadin, Polizhinaks);
- use vaccination (Solko-Trikhovak vaccine for creation of local immunity);
- keep general and intimate hygiene.