Today we will tell you about the polyps in the uterus and cervical canal. And, about their causes, diagnosis, signs and symptoms, as well as modern methods of treatment.
Cervical and uterus polyps is a disease of the female genital organs when the inner membrane of the uterus grows. Cervical Mucosa are formations of one or more protrusions.
Polyps are tissue growths of the endometrium caused by various hormonal disorders in the body. But, first of all, this is not the only cause. Because, among the predisposing factors like inflammatory diseases of the genital sphere the following promote polyp appearance: adnexitis (inflammation of the appendages), endometritis (inflammation of the inner walls of the uterus), abortion.
What are the reasons of polyp development?
The main cause of polyps is the hormonal imbalance. So, when an amount of estrogen hormones are produced it stimulates growth of the internal wall of the uterus (endometrium). Due to the high concentration of estrogen in the blood the inner uterine walls grow layers and protrusions. And these, consequently, are polyps of the endometrium.
Furthermore, the development of polyps may progress due to other diseases: disease of thyroid gland, chronic endometritis or adnexitis, as well as decrease in immunity. Some time after an abortion or diagnostic curettage there is also a possibility of polyp growth.
Types of polyps
Types of polyps vary depending on their structure:
- Endometrium polyps are in the uterine cavity
- Cervical polyps are in the uterine cavity
- Glandular polyps are polyps with glands
- Glandular-fibrous polyps differ by the endometrial glands in their composition and stromal tissue that supports them
- Fibrous polyps most of all have a dense fibrous tissue, and just a small number of glands. This type of polyps develops most frequently in women after the age of forty
- Adenomatous polyps are the name for endometrium polyps having a high risk of transforming into the endometrial cancer disease
Small polyps of the uterus and cervix do not have symptoms.
- uterine bleeding after end of menstruation
- smearing discharge from the genital tract in the middle of the cycle, eliminating menstruation
- pain in the abdomen: is not always present. It usually is a sign of large polyps in the uterus or cervix
- pain during sexual intercourse
- vaginal discharge with blood after sex
Uterus polyps diagnostics
First of all, all of the above symptoms are the reason for a woman to seek help from a specialist who will perform an exam, make a diagnose and propose methods and medicine for treatment. Endometrial polyps are detected by the inspection of a gynecologist. By ultrasound test and uterine examination with the help of special tools (hysteroscopy).
Methods used to diagnose endometrial polyps:
- Gynecologists would examine external genitals and the cervix using mirrors. That allows the doctor to detect polyps of the cervical canal. In this case, they appear as small pink formations. Also, protruding from the cervix channel into the vagina. Gynecological examinations can not detect endometrial polyps.
- An ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs allows a specialist to detect thickening of the inner wall of the uterus (endometrium) and observe polyp protrusions.
- Uterography is a type of medical test. Contrast dyes are used, and an x-ray is performed. This examination will determine irregularities in the contours of organs, uterus cavity and to detect polyps in the uterus.
- Hysteroscopy is among the most informative methods of diagnosing polyps in the uterus. It uses a special optical device placed in the uterus. With the help of a hysteroscope the doctor inspects the uterine cavity, detects polyps and evaluates their size and number. In addition, when performing a hysterotomy, a doctor will do an endometrial biopsy. Also, taking a sample of the endometrium for microscopic examination. Endometrial biopsy allows to distinguish polyp growths from cancer. Finally, women have conclusive test results.
Treatment of polyps
Surgery eliminates most polyps. Carried out under the supervision of a hysteroscope, a doctor monitors the specifics of the uterus outlines on-screen.
If polyps recur, doctors scrape the uterine cavity. This gynecological surgery is performed using general anesthesia.
The uterine cavity curettage is a reference to the mechanical removal of the endometrium. Rather, the inner uterine wall, with all existing polyps using specific tools. The patient should follow-up with a gynecologist. Because, the disease tends to relapse (re-appearing polyps) if it’s root causes have not been identified and eliminated.
Yet, inflammatory diseases make the removal of uterine polyps contraindicated. Consequently, before removing polyps, a woman should, therefore, undergo tests for the presence of infectious agents. Some sexually transmitted agents are: chlamydia, thrush, mycroplasmosis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, among others. In addition, this is not a complete list of sexually transmitted agents. Hence, patents should consult a doctor if they feel they may have one.
Menstrual disorders, most of all, cause polyps of the cervical canal. Therefore, oral contraceptives or medication is prescribed. As a result, almost all patents must be watched by a professional.
In conclusion, polyps is a dangerous disease of the female genital tract. In some cases, it can turn into cancer of the uterus and cervix. If you have similar symptoms, you probably need to consult a doctor. Self-medicating is not recommended! In as much as, every woman should see a doctor.